SEDL's NCDDR project is a knowledge translation project focused on expanding awareness, use, and contributions to evidence bases of disability and rehabilitation research. This NCDDR publication is designed to provide knowledge translation overview information targeted to stakeholders in disability and rehabilitation research.
Neither SEDL nor the NCDDR discriminates on the basis of age, sex, race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, marital or veteran status, or the presence of a disability. The contents of this document do not necessarily represent the policy of the U. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government. Introduction to models, strategies, and measures.
Knowledge translation KT is a complex and multidimensional concept that demands a comprehensive understanding of its mechanisms, methods, and measurements, as well as of its influencing factors at the individual and contextual levels—and the interaction between both those levels.
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This literature review, although not intended to be an in-depth or systematic review of any one aspect of knowledge translation, is designed to bring together several aspects of it from selected literature for the purpose of raising awareness, connecting thoughts and perspectives, and stimulating ideas and questions about knowledge translation for future research of
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services area of inquiry in rehabilitation.
The body of work included in this review was selected from frequently cited and thought-provoking literature and represents a variety of thoughts and approaches that are applicable to knowledge translation. This paper begins by presenting the definitions of knowledge translation and discussing several models that, together, can be used to delineate components and understand mechanisms necessary for successful knowledge translation.
Then the knowledge translation strategies and their effectiveness are explored based on the literature drawn from other health-care fields in addition to rehabilitation. Finally, several methods and approaches to measure the use of research knowledge in various dimensions are presented. CIHR defined KT as "the exchange, synthesis and ethically-sound application of knowledge—within a complex system of interactions among researchers and users—to accelerate the capture of the benefits of research for Canadians through improved health, more effective services and products, and a strengthened health care system" CIHR,para.
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services few other definitions of KT have been developed. Adapted from the CIHR definition, the Knowledge Translation Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Torontostated its definition of knowledge translation as "the effective and timely incorporation of evidence-based information into the practices of health professionals in such a way as to effect optimal health care outcomes and maximize the potential of the health system.
Most recently, the National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research NCDDR proposed another working definition of KT as "the collaborative and systematic review, assessment, identification, aggregation, and practical application of high-quality disability and rehabilitation research by key stakeholders i. A prominent characteristic of KT, as indicated by CIHRis that it encompasses all steps between the creation of new knowledge and its application to yield beneficial outcomes for society.
Essentially, KT is an interactive process underpinned by effective exchanges between researchers who create new knowledge and those who use it.
As stated by CIHR, bringing users and creators of knowledge together during all stages of the research cycle is fundamental to successful KT.
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Knowledge in KT has an implicit meaning as research-based knowledge. CIHR envisioned that KT strategies can help define research questions and hypotheses, select appropriate research methods, conduct the research itself, interpret and contextualize the research findings, and apply the findings to resolve practical issues and problems.
As outlined by CIHRcontinuing dialogues, interactions, and partnerships within and between different groups of knowledge creators and users for all stages of the research process are integral parts of KT. Examples of different interactive groups are as follows:. CIHR stated that the process of KT includes knowledge dissemination, communication, technology transfer, ethical
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services, knowledge management, knowledge utilization, two-way exchange between researchers and those who apply knowledge, implementation research, technology assessment, synthesis of results with the global context, and development of consensus guidelines.
Therefore, KT appears to be a larger construct that encompasses most previously existing concepts related to moving knowledge to use. It is the newest conceptual development that seems to be more comprehensive, more sophisticated, and highly embedded in the actual contexts in which the knowledge applications will eventually occur.
Knowledge translation KT is a term increasingly used in health-care fields to represent a process of moving what we learned through research to the actual applications of such knowledge in a variety of practice settings and circumstances. Despite a strong endorsement for EBP in rehabilitation and other health-care fields, the use of research for practice continues to be lacking e.
This difficulty has led to increased awareness of the complexity of this process, quests to understand its mechanisms, and attempts to develop strategies that could increase its success. In past literature, scholars have had different takes on the interchangeable use of KT and other similarly focused terminologies. Some have used KT and other terms interchangeably e. That debate lies outside the scope of this paper and will not be discussed here. CIHR identified six opportunities within the research cycle at which the interactions, communications, and partnerships that will help facilitate KT could occur.
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services the following:. Figure 1 shows a graphical model in which the six opportunities listed here were superimposed on CIHR's depiction of the knowledge cycle. Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Such details could be used to augment an understanding of the specific components, chronological stages, and contextual factors that must be taken into consideration to facilitate successful communications, interactions, partnerships, and desired outcomes during each of the KT opportunities.
An effective KT framework requires not only the environmental organizational view, but also the microperspective of an individual Davis, Therefore, models and frameworks that represent an individual user's perspective, as well as those that address contextual factors, are included.
This framework for knowledge translation Jacobson et al. It provides practical guidelines that can be used by researchers and others to engage in the knowledge translation process by increasing their familiarity with and understanding of the intended user groups. Specifically, this framework can be used as a guide for establishing interactions required by the KT process illustrated in the CIHR's model. The framework contains five domains that should be taken into consideration when establishing interactions with users:.
Each domain includes a series "Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services" questions. The purpose of these questions is to provide a way to organize what the researcher already knows about the user group and knowledge translation, identify what is still unknown, and flag what is important to know.
The following paragraphs and lists describe the foci and sample questions for each domain. The user group domain focuses on understanding several aspects of the user group, such as the group's operational context, morphology, decision-making practices, access to information sources, attitudes towards research and researchers, and experiences with knowledge translation.
The issue domain focuses on the characteristics and context of the issue intended to be resolved through the knowledge translation effort. The research domain focuses on the research characteristics, the user group's orientations toward research, and the relevance, congruence, and compatibility of the research at hand to the user group.
The research—user relationship domain focuses on the description of relationships between the researcher and the user group.
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The dissemination strategies domain focuses on practical strategies for disseminating the research knowledge. As suggested by Jacobson et al. The scope in obtaining this information will depend on each knowledge translation circumstance.
This framework offers a comprehensive approach to guide the interaction of knowledge creators and knowledge users. Additional frameworks that illuminate the mechanisms, considerations, and influencing factors of the interaction between the knowledge creators and the knowledge users through all steps in the process of knowledge translation are certainly needed.
These selected models and frameworks can be used to understand the contextual factors that could play important roles in the success or failure of the knowledge translation effort and should be taken into consideration in all stages of the KT process. The Ottawa Model of Research Use: The model has gone through some revisions since its inception. The relationships among the six elements are illustrated in Figure 2.
Large image of Figure 2. According to Graham and Loganthe OMRU relies on the process of assessing, monitoring, and evaluating each element before, during, and after the decision to implement an innovation.
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Barrier assessments must be conducted on the innovation, the potential adopters, and the practice environment to identify factors that could hinder or support the uptake of the innovation. The implementation plan is then selected and tailored to overcome the barriers and enhance the supports identified. Introduction of the implementation plan is monitored to ensure that the potential adopters learn about the innovation and what is expected of them.
The monitoring is ongoing to help determine whether any change in the current implementation or a new implementation plan is required. Finally, the implementation outcomes are evaluated to determine whether the innovation is producing the intended effect or any unintended consequences.
The Knowledge-to-Action Process Framework: The KTA process has two components: Each component contains several phases. The authors conceptualized the KTA process to be complex and dynamic, with no definite boundaries between the two components and among their phases.
The phases of the action component may occur sequentially or
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services, and the knowledge-creation-component phases may also influence the action phases. In the KTA process, knowledge is mainly conceptualized as empirically derived research-based knowledge; however, it encompasses other forms of knowing, such as experiential knowledge.
The KTA framework also emphasizes the collaboration between the knowledge producers and knowledge users throughout the KTA process.
The visual presentation of the
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services process is shown in Figure 3. Large image of Figure 3. Time for a map, pp. Knowledge creation consists of three phases: Knowledge creation was conceptualized as an inverted funnel, with a vast number of knowledge pieces present in the knowledge inquiry process in the beginning. Those pieces are then reduced in number through knowledge syntheses and, finally, to an even a smaller number of tools or products to facilitate implementation of the knowledge.
The authors stated that as knowledge moves through the funnel, it becomes more distilled and refined, and presumably becomes more useful to the stakeholders. The needs of potential knowledge users can be incorporated into each phase of knowledge creation, such as tailoring the research questions to address the problems identified by the users, customizing the message for different intended users, and customizing the method of dissemination to better reach them.
The action cycle represents the activities needed for knowledge application. The action cycle often starts with an individual or group identifying the problem or issue, as well as the knowledge relevant to solving it. Included in this phase is the appraisal of the knowledge itself in terms of its validity and usefulness
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services the problem or issue at hand.
The knowledge then is adapted to fit the local context. The next step is to assess the barriers and facilitators related to the knowledge to be adopted, the potential adopters, and the context or setting in which the knowledge is to be used. This information is then used to develop and execute the plan and strategies to facilitate and promote awareness and implementation of the knowledge.
Once the plan is developed and executed, the next stage is to monitor knowledge use or application according to types of knowledge use identified conceptual use, involving changes in levels of knowledge, understanding, or attitudes; instrumental use, involving changes in behavior or practice; or strategic use, involving the manipulation of knowledge to attain specific power or profit goals.
This step is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the strategies and plan so they can be adjusted or modified accordingly. During the KTA process, it is also necessary to evaluate the impact of using the knowledge to determine if such use has made a difference on desired outcomes for patients, practitioners, or the system.
A plan also needs to be in place to sustain the use of the knowledge in changing environments as time passes. As stated by Graham and colleaguesthe relationships between the action phases within the cycle are not unidirectional. Rather, each action phase can be influenced by the phase that precedes it and vice versa.
For example, knowledge not being adopted and used as intended could indicate the need to review the plans and strategies again to improve the uptake of knowledge.
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The framework also incorporates the need to adapt the knowledge to fit with the local context which has also been indicated in the CIHR's KT model and the need to sustain knowledge use by anticipating changes and adapting accordingly.
However, the KTA process framework does not provide additional details in the knowledge action process aside from what has already been outlined by the OMRU. Nevertheless, it is
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services comprehensive framework that begins to incorporate the full cycle of knowledge translation from knowledge creation through implementation and impact.
According to the model, a successful implementation of research into practice is a function of the interplay of three core elements: These three elements have equal importance in determining the success of the research use.
All members were either responsible for the knowledge transfer process in their For instance, our CoP validated the components of our theoretical framework. in the health and social services network analyze their organizational context. Knowledge transfer and exchange initiatives aim to facilitate the accessibility, describing or discussing knowledge transfer or exchange activities in healthcare Key Components of Knowledge Transfer & Exchange in Health Services four key terms/variants: knowledge, transfer, framework, healthcare.
To identify the key common components of knowledge transfer and exchange in four key terms/variants: knowledge, transfer, framework, health care.
As further validation stakeholders' consultation of the findings was.
Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services
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SEDL's NCDDR project is a knowledge translation project focused on expanding awareness, use, and contributions to evidence bases of disability and rehabilitation research.
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Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services
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Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services
The study of knowledge transfer KT has been proceeding in parallel but independently in health services and in business, presenting an opportunity for synergy and sharing.
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Knowledge Translation & Exchange | CanChild Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services. Stud Health Technol Inform. ; Validating a knowledge transfer framework in health services. Orendorff D(1), Ramirez A, Coakes E. Figure 1: Promoting Action on Research In Health Services framework. . policy making have been referred to in many different ways such as knowledge transfer, . a panel of 16 experts in ageing and health to review, modify and validate the. International Council on Medical and Care Compunetics, IOS Press L. Bos, B. Blobel, Validating a Knowledge Transfer Framework in Health Services Doug. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Knowledge transfer and exchange frameworks in health and their applicability to palliative care: Scoping. Knowledge transfer and exchange initiatives aim to facilitate the accessibility, describing or discussing knowledge transfer or exchange activities in healthcare Key Components of Knowledge Transfer & Exchange in Health Services four key terms/variants: knowledge, transfer, framework, healthcare. To identify the key common components of knowledge transfer and exchange in four key terms/variants: knowledge, transfer, framework, health care. As further validation stakeholders' consultation of the findings was. Knowledge Translation: Introduction to Models, Strategies, and Measures
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This information can be determined in part by analyzing who has used the information level of utilization , how the information was used type of utilization , and the various time frames of utilization activities timing of utilization. Often, the focus is on the use of research as it is intended. The utilization of health research in policymaking: Early research assumed that utilization occurred when an entire set of recommendations was implemented in the form suggested by the researcher Larsen, Large image of Figure 6.
Climbing the ladder of research utilization: The fourth area, degree of influence of research on policy implementation, concerns the use of research in policy implementation, either to determine appropriate implementation strategies or to secure support for the policy in terms of financial resources, political commitment, and public opinion.
So Guys, what turns you on? Figure 1: Promoting Action on Research In Health Services framework. . policy making have been referred to in many different ways such as knowledge transfer, . a panel of 16 experts in ageing and health to review, modify and validate the. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Knowledge transfer and exchange frameworks in health and their applicability to palliative care: Scoping..
The framework also incorporates the need to adapt the knowledge to fit with the local context which has also been indicated in the CIHR's KT model and the need to sustain knowledge use by anticipating changes and adapting accordingly. Same as the previous elements, each theme has dimensions of low and high. The evaluation is utilization-focused, and the decision is made whether to accept or reject the evidence rather than using the traditional critique to determine simply whether the evidence is weak or strong.
During the project's 3-year period, the researchers developed the initial research proposal in response to frustration expressed by local professionals. In addition, because of the small number of studies limited to a small number of organizational settings, the authors stated that it was not possible to determine whether interventions targeting both individual and organizational barriers are more effective than those targeting only individual barriers.
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