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Lubangi Muniania runs Tabilulu Productions and is an international consultant on African art and culture for a variety of institutions.

Over the years, Lubangi has been a key source of expertise on Congolese music for Afropop Worldwide. On April 11,Lubangi dropped by the Afropop office in Brooklyn for a deep conversation about recent developments.

You were born in Congo, right?

I was born and raised in Kinshasa, but I traveled throughout Congo, and I have a pretty good idea of what the country is. Luckily enough, my father was in the military, so we were able to travel throughout the country.

The last time we spoke was awhile back, in fact the dawn of the ndombolo era. Can you decode this term for us?

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Ndombolo started out as a dance move. Wenge Musica came out with ndombolo.

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So people started identifying the dance move with the music, or the music with the dance. Soukous was a dance, and then it became the name of the genre. Soukous was a dance move, and then it became a genre of music. The same thing with kwassa-kwassa. The musicians kept it as an enigma in a way. Yes, ndombolo came out of mbwakela. So these creative guys, they go back to their own traditions. Same thing with kwassa-kwassa. At some point, ndombolo Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction mbwakela for Laurent Kabila, the president.

It was his persona and the way he walked. It has nothing to do with the president. So ndombolo becomes the name of the genre.

People start to think of it that way. What can we say about the actual music that went with it?

What had changed in the music that made listeners refer to the actual music as ndombolo? It was partly the beat of the drum, which was not the same as soukous.

The music was a bit slower, Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction it went well with the drumbeats sounded.

In soukous, you rarely hear the percussion. And the drum, very fast. And soukous is a solo dance. You go crazy, whatever you want to do.

Ndombolo they do the same thing, but this one, the drum is also telling you how to dance, step by step. So that was something new.

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And people just loved it. This music in Congo is very competitive. They compete all the time. You have to keep up. But it goes way back in the tradition. And that changed music in Congo. This is exactly what you hear in Abidjan, and also in Nigeria. And also that beat. Can you repeat this while we play music? Oh, it has a meaning. Kauka is the neighborhood where most of those guys came from, and macini is machine. Everybody would go crazy.

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