Lubangi Muniania runs Tabilulu Productions and is an international consultant on African art and culture for a variety of institutions.
Over the years, Lubangi has been a key source of expertise on Congolese music for Afropop Worldwide. On April 11,Lubangi dropped by the Afropop office in Brooklyn for a deep conversation about recent developments.
I was born and raised in Kinshasa, but I traveled throughout Congo, and I have a pretty good idea of what the country is. Luckily enough, my father was in the military, so we were able to travel throughout the country.
The last time we spoke was awhile back, in fact the dawn of the ndombolo era. Can you decode this term for us?
Ndombolo started out as a dance move. Wenge Musica came out with ndombolo.
So people started identifying the dance move with the music, or the music with the dance. Soukous was a dance, and then it became the name of the genre. Soukous was a dance move, and then it became a genre of music. The same thing with kwassa-kwassa. The musicians kept it as an enigma in a way. Yes, ndombolo came out of mbwakela. So these creative guys, they go back to their own traditions. Same thing with kwassa-kwassa. At some point, ndombolo
Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction mbwakela for Laurent Kabila, the president.
It was his persona and the way he walked. It has nothing to do with the president. So ndombolo becomes the name of the genre.
People start to think of it that way. What can we say about the actual music that went with it?
What had changed in the music that made listeners refer to the actual music as ndombolo? It was partly the beat of the drum, which was not the same as soukous.
In soukous, you rarely hear the percussion. And the drum, very fast. And soukous is a solo dance. You go crazy, whatever you want to do.
Ndombolo they do the same thing, but this one, the drum is also telling you how to dance, step by step. So that was something new.
And people just loved it. This music in Congo is very competitive. They compete all the time. You have to keep up. But it goes way back in the tradition. And that changed music in Congo. This is exactly what you hear in Abidjan, and also in Nigeria. And also that beat. Can you repeat this while we play music? Oh, it has a meaning. Kauka is the neighborhood where most of those guys came from, and macini is machine. Everybody would go crazy.
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And today it goes to different parts of Africa. They play macini ya kauka. They went over there and they started collaborating with the DJs. Before that, it started more locally, and the early
Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction wanted to sound more like Congolese.
And that is the time when the Wenge generation and ndombolo is going on. What changed things was when Koffi Olomide moved away from his original tchachohis suave ballad kind of music. We incorporated ndombolo and became bigger than the rest of them, Wenge and all. Because he played Bercy in Paris.
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So at that moment, the early s, Koffi was the one representing ndombolo. There was no competition really. Magic System came out locally, and Koffi was actually inviting them to his concerts. So it took a while. I would probably say after September After September 11, people started reflecting. And before you know it, president Laurent Kabila was dead [assassinated Jan.
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At that point, the Congolese became
Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction political. All these people who used to organize concerts in Europe started organizing political meetings, because they finally realized that the country was going down. So they stopped focusing on music, and they became combatants.
They asked musicians to start singing, change the lyrics. They had to become political like Bob Marley. They felt like—they still feel like—the Congolese government is working against the interests of the people.
They were corrupting the musicians, asking them to sing the praises of
Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction working in the government. No one denounced the government then. But the supporters of these musicians, they now started denouncing. And they asked the musicians, rather
Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction singing love songs, or praise of somebody, we want you to denounce what is going on.
I think Koffi also. But they were not overt. People were not happy. Old habits die hard. This is something that Jupiter Bokondji of Jupiter and Okwess spoke about. He wanted to be part of a conscious generation. But getting back to the the ndombolo generation and this business of competition between bands and singers, you talked about the musical side of it, the ones who did best were the ones who were most creative, digging into tradition. And I know their focus on fashion and the look--a lot of great creativity there.
The last time I was in Kinshasa was inI interviewed Werrason, and he was concerned about the way the fans of singers like him and JB Mpiana were becoming like sports teams, and fighting.
They would do the remix...
What do you think this was really about? They were frustrated with life, about the government. I am angry because the government is not working. So sort of by accident, they became the leaders of these youths. Most of their parents probably were not models to them anymore. JB Mpiana became a model for some, and Werrason became a role model for others. And they would make them compete. Our King does not do this. He would listen to them, to keep himself
Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction. Before you know it, the newspapers got involved.
And some sponsors got involved. A beer company that would sponsor JB Mpiana would be in competition with another beer company. So this whole thing became bigger than themselves. And it became ridiculous. And it almost got to a point where politicians got scared, because they knew that if they picked a side, it would become a political fight.
So the actual president, Joseph Kabila, started inviting them together, all of them. They created what they
Ferre gola wife sexual dysfunction Maisha Park. Jupiter mentioned that this competition is still going on, and he was very down on it. These days, is it still the same players, JB Mpiana and Werrason? Koffi uses his position with younger singers to stay up.
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Lubangi Muniania runs Tabilulu Productions and is an international doctor on African mastery and culture in place of a variety of institutions. Over the years, Lubangi has been a cue source of skill on Congolese music for Afropop Worldwide.
On April 11, , Lubangi dropped by the Afropop office in Brooklyn for a low conversation about brand-new developments. You were born in Congo, right? I was born and raised in Kinshasa, but I traveled everywhere in Congo, and I have a beautiful good idea of what the motherland is. Luckily sufficient, my father was in the military, so we were able to rove throughout the wilderness. The last rhythm we spoke was awhile back, in fact the come to mind of the ndombolo era.
Can you decode this phrase for us? Ndombolo started out as a dance propose. Wenge Musica came out with ndombolo. So people started identifying the shindig move with the music, or the music with the dance.
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